We calculated a marginal R2 for these best models as an estimate of the variance explained by the fixed factors in the model (Nakagawa and Schielzeth 2013). Copyright © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. A review of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene, Impact on short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) from a realistic land-use change scenario via changes in biogenic emissions, A new model mechanism for atmospheric oxidation of isoprene: Global effects on oxidants, nitrogen oxides, organic products, and secondary organic aerosol, Regional to global biogenic isoprene emission responses to changes in vegetation from 2000 to 2015, BIOTECHNOLOGY. The only clear effect of genotype on aboveground biomass in the Arizona plantation was caused by the wild-type CN line growing ∼85% more than the other lines in year 2 (ANOVA for all 4 genotypes, 2014: F = 4.9, df = 12 blocks, P = 0.05) (Fig. Protein expression changes are displayed according to their functional categories and log2 ratios for IR/IE and are color coded: red, increased ratios; gray, unchanged ratios; and blue, decreased ratios. J Ecol 1993, 81(1):101-119. However, there were no significant differences between the 2 IR lines and the EV line, which serves as the true control to the RNAi lines and also emits isoprene at natural levels. 2B) that were not substantially different from those of the 4 IE lines. The cellular mechanisms that enhance stress tolerance and photosynthetic performance due to isoprene emission have not been resolved. Hybrid Poplar What is Hybrid Poplar? Our study represents a field trial of genetically modified poplar trees with negligible rates of isoprene emission. We also thank the owners of the plantation sites: D. Dubé, C. Iannuzzi, H. Isbrucker, G. Pellerin, P. Labrecque and A. Labbé. In each plot, we planted 10 individuals (Trillium and Maianthemum) or 10 clumps (Sanguinaria and Asarum) of each species. For this study we used only two of these clones, namely clone 915303, a hybrid of Populus maximowiczii and P. balsamifera (M × B), and clone 131, a hybrid of P. deltoides and P. nigra (D × N), both developed in Quebec. In this study, understory native herbaceous plants were planted in the six most successful of these plantations. The heterogeneous condensation of oxidized derivatives of isoprene causes increased growth rates in secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere, which affect Earth’s radiative balance (50, 51). For clarity, we refer to the 3 EV lines and 1 CN line, together, as isoprene-emitting (IE) genotypes and the 15 low-isoprene emitters as isoprene-reduced (IR) genotypes. Poplar plantation in Carnation, WA. In the Arizona plantation, when considering the 3 lines influenced by RNAi treatments—the empty-vector IE control and 2 IR lines—we observed no significant differences in annual aboveground biomass production during or following 4 y of growth (Fig. 2013). Forest herbs are of particular interest, since many are sensitive to disturbance and slow to recolonize after the abandonment of agriculture (Flinn and Vellend, 2005). It provides forage for browsing wildlife such as white-tailed and mule deer up through the sapling stage. Synthesis of Country Progress Reports. S3 A–C). S3), net photosynthesis rates were significantly suppressed in the 2 IR lines, compared to the isoprene-emitting CN line (Fig. Agrofor Syst 1993, 21(1):43-61. Voronoi Treemaps as introduced by Bernhardt et al. This is also substantially higher than the productivity of hybrid aspen plantations (ca. Samples were categorized as IE and IR and according to the respective sampling time (predawn, noon). All MS/MS spectra were exported as MASCOT generic files and used for identification by the Mascot search engine (v 2.5.1; Matrix Science) in a Populus trichocarpa protein database (v3; 30,197,159 residues; 73,016 sequences). Hybrid-poplar tree plantations provide a source for biofuel and biomass, but they also increase forest isoprene emissions. Accessed 7 September 2013 http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/MuMIn/index.html, Bates D, Maechler M, Bolker B: lme4: linear mixed-effects models using S4 classes.R package version 0.999999-2. 2D). Asarum and Maianthemum grew better in well-drained soils with high concentrations of Ca (and high pH). At the ecosystem level, hybrid poplar plantations were a source of C in the first 2 years, due to the small contribution of plant biomass and litter relative to soil C loss. Landsc Ecol 2002, 17(6):495-507. The RNAi cassette and the empty pART27 vector were then used to transform A. tumefaciens by electroporation. SpringerPlus DO NOT DISTRIBUTE WITHOUT EXPRESS WRITTEN PERMISSION OF GREENWOOD RESOURCES 2 Improvement Approaches. Study sites are indicated by triangle symbols (▲). Hybrids are also developed through plant … 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2006.00141.x, Nakagawa S, Schielzeth H: A general and simple method for obtaining R2 from generalized linear mixed-effects models. These are: Asarum canadense L., Maianthemum racemosum (L.) Link (syn. Thus, the lower growth rates exhibited by the modified lines do not appear to be due to the emission of isoprene, but rather to the genetic modification process. Clone 3333, another D × N hybrid, was used in place of clone 131 where the latter showed high damage. North American Pulp and Paper Industry Hybrid Initiated the Poplar Plantation Industry 1960 – 1970s : Crown Zellerbach, Packaging Corporation, Westvaco start planting because of the lack of natural re g eneration of P. deltoides alon g the Mississi pp i River ggpp due to flood control work. The results of ANOVAs show that there tended to be greater differences in the responses of the transplanted plants among sites than among stand types (Table 1). Hybrid-poplar tree plantations provide a source for biofuel and biomass, but they also increase forest isoprene emissions. Whole-proteome comparison of IE and IR leaves sampled during predawn and midday (noon) for trees grown in Arizona. 2012; Gardiner et al. 3rd edition. Precursor and TOP10 fragment spectra were acquired in the Orbitrap mass detector at 60,000× or 15,000× resolution, respectively. The other two forest species performed equally well in the plantations as in the old-growth forests. Sanguinaria grew better at lower elevations, which is to be expected since this species is near the northern edge of its range in the study area (Kiger 1997). The conclusions from our study show that when trees are grown in poplar plantations under natural field conditions, any physiological benefit of isoprene emission with regard to stress tolerance and aboveground productivity is either not relevant or subject to compensation by alternative protective pathways following RNAi suppression and subsequent proteomic and metabolomic adjustments (20). By using this website, you agree to our For example, in early June, when maximum canopy temperatures were often greater than 40 °C (SI Appendix, Fig. (C–F) Annual shoot biomass production in 4 consecutive years for the 4 genetic lines grown in Arizona. vol 3 edition. 10.1007/s11056-011-9250-3. (2009) used this approach to test the performance of four native understory species in hybrid poplar plantations in Belgium. Each understory herb response was fit separately and all response variables were square-root transformed prior to analysis. More attention has been paid to poplar plantation since the implementation of Natural Forests © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Campaign information and peer influence give rise to partisan echo chambers. On very fertile, sunny sites, poplar can outperform … 7171-B4, Institute de la Recherche Agronomique [INRA], Nancy, France) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (C58C1/pMP90) strains as described earlier (18). 1998), and the M×B poplar clone, with this species as a parent, may also have such an effect. All other data created for this study have been deposited in the Open Science Framework data repository and are accessible at the unique identifier https://osf.io/xzndc/?view_only=b3233c6ab9384e189a56282ef7c0e5fe. 10.1007/s10531-011-0120-2, Hunter MD: Out of sight, out of mind: the impacts of root-feeding insects in natural and managed systems. Sanguinaria flowers were counted on April 22, 2010 and May 5, 2011 at the Bedford site; April 29, 2010 and May 7, 2011 at the Bromptonville site; and May 30, 2010 and May 14, 2011 at the La Patrie site. Isebrands Glen Stanosz John R. Dramm Adele Olstad David Cole Jay Samsel United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory Research Paper FPL-RP-573. Understory herbaceous plants could be transplanted into plantations as was done in this study and given a chance to establish while benefiting from protection from large herbivores and an initial reduction of understory competitors. avoided in hybrid poplar plantations if prescriptions had been altered to suit the site. Gallery: Hybrid Poplar Plantations. Hybrid poplar trees grow up to 10 feet per year and they live 40+ years. J Torrey Bot Soc 2003, 130(1):34-42. Unlike methane, however, emitted isoprene is photochemically oxidized within hours, not years. Important differences in biomass were visible among the six study sites. 2005. . 2013) in R software (R Development Core Team 2011) and the MuMIn package (Barton 2013) was used for model selection and multimodel inference. Bulk propagation of this transgenic material was done by a commercial facility (Broadacres Nursery, Hubbard, OR) via clonal propagation of both dormant and green (actively growing) cuttings in a greenhouse. 10.1007/s10531-010-9936-4, Brockerhoff EG, Jactel H, Parrotta JA, Quine CP, Sayer J: Plantation forests and biodiversity: oxymoron or opportunity? 2005, Domon and Bouchard 2007). 2013) or through subsequent under-planting with native tree species (Truax et al. Of the surviving Trillium plants, 94% had reached the three-leaf adult stage and 18% flowered. For Maianthemum, the availability of diffuse light was the most important environmental variable predicting the sum of leaf lengths (a proxy for biomass), and was also important for predicting flowering, with a better response in shadier conditions. Points represent the mean (n = 5 separate trees) and vertical bars represent ±SE. All three authors participated in the conception and design of the study and read and approved the final manuscript. For those of you who want to know, there are genetically modified hybrid poplars, however, none of them is accessible to the general public, so every hybrid poplar tree or cutting you get from me is NON-GMO. Four woodlot plots (three from the LAP site and one from the HAM site) were subsequently eliminated from the study due to damage from fallen trees or crushed deer exclusion cages. Reductions in isoprene emission were nearly complete in some IR lines and only slightly reduced in others, based on statistical metrics provided by analysis of variance (ANOVA for genotype effect on isoprene emission rate: F = 56.978, degrees of freedom [df] = 12, P < 0.001; Fig. Maianthemum and Trillium flowers were also counted. Boxes, whiskers, and symbols are as described in Fig. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. Given this, it is of interest that we could not find consistent evidence of a negative influence of high seasonal temperatures and low atmospheric humidities during all 4 y, and imposed drought during year 4, on the growth of IR trees in the Arizona and Oregon plantations. Poplar plantations have been established around the world to provide timber or fuelwood and to control erosion in degraded areas. Re-Cropping. New Phytol 1982, 90(4):757-776. Poplar is the general term for trees in the genus Populus. The search parameters were 10 ppm peptide mass and 0.02 Da MS/MS tolerance, with one missed cleavage allowed. 2010), and environmental stresses can affect seedling emergence and establishment stages (e.g., Albrecht and McCarthy 2009; Bierzychudek 1982; Nault and Gagnon 1993; Vasseur and Gagnon 1994). These results suggest that certain forest herb species can be reintroduced as juvenile plants into plantations, knowing that their spontaneous recolonization is often limited by dispersal and/or seedling establishment. Future patterns of land-use change, particularly those involving replacement of native forests with cultivated plantations, are likely to cause increases in isoprene emission, concomitant with increases in tropospheric O3 production and SOA particle growth (28). A flow of O3 to the reaction cell of the FIS was used to provide the oxidant needed to elicit a chemiluminescent reaction with isoprene, and photon counts were detected and converted to isoprene concentration using calibrations against a diluted standard tank (5 μmol⋅mol−1; Airgas Inc.). Author contributions: R.K.M., B.W., T.N.R., S.H.S., D.J.P.M., J.B., and J.-P.S. Manufacturing. Mt Res Dev 2005, 25(3):252-261. The age of each stand was estimated based on cores taken from a sample of the largest trees and interviews with landowners. A healthy hybrid poplar plantation was grown on the clay spoil of a former sand and gravel mine where a one-time application of municipal biosolids was applied in deep trench rows. In total we identified 169 discriminant proteins—113 lower expressed and 56 higher expressed—in the IR lines, compared to IE lines (Fig. has been widely planted in Shandong Province, China. Sanguinaria flowers were not counted the first year because the flowering season had finished before the time of transplantation. Hybrids are produced when plants of different species (usually in the same genus) are cross fertilized. Plantations were mixtures of clones I-69 (P. deltoides), I-72 (P. xeuranmericana and I-35 (P. deltoides), established using 1-year-old rooted seedlings at densities that varied between 333 and 1500 stems ha-1. In this new hypothesis, isoprene takes on the role to control the expression of pathways that potentially compete for chloroplast substrates and produce multiple compounds with roles in protection from climate stress, oxidative stress, herbivore stress, and the multiple interactions of these stresses with intrinsic plant growth regulators. For each species, we used different measurements, appropriate for the morphology and growth patterns of each, as proxies for the total biomass of the species in the plot. We hypothesized that even if the understories of young hybrid poplar plantations differ from natural forest understories in terms of certain characteristics, the shading and leaf litter provided by the hybrid poplars would be sufficient to reduce competition from ruderal species and allow native understory herbs to survive and grow. S4). Can J Bot 1990, 68: 391-401. All of these species, apart from Maianthemum, are officially designated as vulnerable species in Quebec, due to the threat of overexploitation of wild populations. Poplars are fast-growing trees that are a source of biofuel and other products including paper, pallets, plywood and furniture frames. Cite this article. This is helpful for the future, however it does not solve the current problem of dealing with the infection of the already planted poplar trees. Hybrid poplar plantation growth rates? 2008). The Poplar and Willow Council of Canada (PWCC - formerly the Poplar Council of Canada PCC) is a national non-profit organization, established in 1977, with membership from industry, land owners, universities, research institutions, and federal and provincial governments. 10.1890/1540-9295(2005)003[0243:ROFPCI]2.0.CO;2, Flinn KM, Vellend M, Marks PL: Environmental causes and consequences of forest clearance and agricultural abandonment in central New York, USA. Accessed 9 February 2013 http://www.publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2008/nrcan/Fo113-3-130F.pdf, MDDEP (Ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement et des Parcs du Québec): Plantes menacées ou vulnérables au Québec. 2012; Gardiner et al. A "hybrid" plant is produced when pollen of one species is used to fertilize flowers of another species. Skype. No natural populations of any of the transplanted species were present in any plot; however, a patch of Asarum was observed near one of the plots in the Bromptonville woodlot. This study also provides evidence that the major limitation to the natural colonization of plantations and secondary forests by understory plants is in the dispersal and/or seedling emergence or establishment stages, rather than in the suitability of the habitats for mature plants. 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2004.01198.x, Fortier J, Gagnon D, Truax B, Lambert F: Biomass and volume yield after 6 years in multiclonal hybrid poplar riparian buffer strips. The vegetation before planting ranged from herbaceous to mixed herbaceous - shrub communities. Asarum canadense plants were the largest of the four species and all clumps contained mature, flowering individuals (10.6 ± 5.0). The only true way to prevent the spread of S. musiva is to plant all resistant hybrid poplars. Much of the variability observed in this study in the responses of Asarum, Maianthemum and Trillium was not explained by any of the measured environmental variables, indicating that other, unmeasured variables played an important role. In the absence of isoprene emissions, the phenylpropanoid pathway is suppressed and the isoprenoid pathways that produce complex terpenoids and carotenoids are enhanced (for flux rates, see ref. The whole plantation … This can occur naturally where the geographic distribution of two crossable species overlap. LaFrankie JV: Maianthemum racemosum. Shading was an important factor for Maianthemum, which showed poorer responses in less shaded environments. Singleton R, Gardescu S, Marks PL, Geber MA: Forest herb colonization of postagricultural forests in central New York State, USA. Schimel JP, Cates RG, Ruess R: The role of balsam poplar secondary chemicals in controlling soil nutrient dynamics through succession in the Alaskan taiga. No need to register, buy now! Three of the modified lines were isoprene-emitting empty-vector (EV) controls and 15 lines were modified for suppressed isoprene emissions. Biomass Bioenergy 2010, 34(7):1028-1040. Generated raw files containing all acquired spectra were loaded to the Progenesis QI for proteomics software (v3.0; Nonlinear Dynamics Ltd., part of Waters) for, label-free quantification and analyzed as previously described (59, 60). (3) Is reintroduction success different under different poplar hybrids? are being established through- out North America in response to demands for timber, pulp … The site characteristics are summarized in Table 4. Oecol 2006, 149(4):668-675. 10.1111/j.2041-210x.2012.00261.x, Nantel P, Gagnon D, Nault A: Population viability analysis of American ginseng and wild leek harvested in stochastic environments. The Future: Hybrid Poplar … A recent analysis of global shifts in forest coverage showed a small influence on isoprene emissions during the period 2000 to 2015 (1.5% decrease), although specific regional influences, such as in the tropics, were greater (53). 2013. . This option becomes especially useful at lower elevations, where land-use pressure from agriculture is stronger and existing woodlots are rarer and more likely to be unsuitable for the restoration of rich hardwood forests. For the identification and quantification of the leaf proteins, carbamidomethylation was set as a fixed modification and methionine oxidation and deamination of asparagine/glutamine as variable modification. The peptide assignments were reimported into the Progenesis QI software. They found after 8 years that two of the species had declined over time in the plantations, but not in old-growth forests, an effect attributed to increased competition within the plantations. 10.1080/713684681, Poyatos R, Latron J, Llorens P: Land use and land cover change after agricultural abandonment: the case of a Mediterranean mountain area (Catalan Pre-Pyrenees). Edited by: Urbanska KM, Grodzinska K. Zurich: Geobotanische Institut SFIT; 1995:1-13. 10.1023/A:1021443929548, Bierzychudek P: Life histories and demography of shade-tolerant temperate forest herbs: a review. New For 2011, 42(2):241-265. This result may be due to confounding effects from other, unmeasured variables. If you've done it, made it, got a van load of oily t-shirts and have decided to give something back by sharing your knowledge or wisdom, then you're welcome too. S1). Poplars, mainly as hybrid clones, are widely planted in the central and northern parts of the country for a variety of purposes. Maianthemum also grew better in soils with less Mg. Sanguinaria, on the other hand, responded more strongly to the C:N ratio, growing better in low C:N ratio soils. In all cases, n = 5 trees. Poplar isn't grown for commercial bio fuel, but it is still a good choice for small scale plantations, especially if you want to combine the crops to improve biodiversity. With this experimental design we aimed to examine biomass production under conditions of both high (well-fertilized, well-watered) and low (light fertilization, limited-watering) growth potentials. We show that it is feasible to develop sustainable plantation-scale biomass sources that can serve as fossil-fuel alternatives for energy generation and lignocellulosic resource development, without degrading air quality. All measurements were made on separate trees for each genetic type and plantation as described in the main text. Using a coupled Earth-system and chemistry model, it has been shown that expansion of poplar plantations in Europe to meet 2020 biofuel targets will potentially increase premature human deaths up to 6% and reduce the yield of wheat and maize crops by 9 Mt⋅y−1 because of increased isoprene emission and accompanying O3 production (9, 10). 3). J.-P.S. We also compare plantations of two hybrid poplar clones with different parent species. You can get a nice privacy screen or windbreak in only 2 years, they make pulp logs in 6-7 … The response of Trillium was less easily predicted by the environmental variables measured in this study, with the best models explaining only approximately 19% of the variability in total leaf lengths and 16% of the variability in flowering. This may be explained by the increased pressure of competition from other understory species that were reinvading the transplantation plots in the less-shaded stands. There was a trend toward better Maianthemum responses in the woodlots than in the DxN poplar plantation. 4A). Thus, suppression of isoprene emissions may cause a shift away from flavonoid biosynthesis and toward lignin biosynthesis, favoring woody biomass production. Gagnon D, Bouchard A: La végétation de l'escarpement d'Eardley, Parc de la Gatineau, Québec. Long-term studies with more species are needed to validate these conclusions. (45) and Ghirardo et al. The four species each responded somewhat differently to the environments, suggesting different niches. Recent efforts have been initiated to evaluate the integrated effects of these atmospheric influences (52), and it is this type of complex photochemical modeling that is most likely to provide comprehensive predictions of how future changes in plantation isoprene emissions might influence global climate. For Chron 2012, 88: 391-407. In particular, Sanguinaria had few leaves and flowers at the highest elevation site, LAP. Exemplary proteins with the highest significance and log2-fold change, respectively, are specifically identified by abbreviations (see Table 1 for complete protein names) according to Ptrichocarpa_210_v3.0_defline. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), the first enzyme in the pathway, was down-regulated in IR trees, similar to the pattern for flavonoid biosynthesis, but cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) content, one of the last enzymes in the pathway, was up-regulated. Mt Res Dev 2003, 23(4):362-368. IV ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to thank and acknowledge my supervisors Drs. To explore the relative influence of different biotic and abiotic environmental variables on the response of transplanted plants, we fit a series of linear mixed-effect regression models, which we then used for model selection and multi-model inference. The hybrid poplar plantation with 20 years caused a greater fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene copy number and a lower bacterial 16S rRNA gene copy number and dehydrogenase and β-glucosidase activities compared to that in the cropland soils. Trillium and Asarum are both valued for their ornamental value in shaded gardens. Horizontal lines within each box represent median values; boxes represent the limits of the second (lower) and third (upper) quartiles, respectively; vertical lines represent upper and lower ranges; and dots represent extreme outliers (n = 5 trees for each line). Charron D, Gagnon D: The demography of northern populations of Panax quinquefolium (American Ginseng). Agric For Entomol 2001, 3(1):3-9. The woodlot soils were on average more humid and more acidic than those of the poplar plantations, with higher C contents, higher C:N ratios, and higher concentrations of N, K, and Mg. vol 3 edition. Case FWJ: Trillium grandiflorum. The success after two years of the transplants in the hybrid poplar plantations in this study is the first evidence for the suitability of certain hybrid poplar plantation environments for these four species of forest understory plants. (D) Maximum observed leaf net photosynthesis rates in the 4 genetic lines growing in Arizona. Poplar plantations - Duration: 11:29. International Plywood BV 45,717 views. 2013). Most of the expression differences between the IR and IE lines were found during predawn sampling—38 proteins were exclusively up-regulated and 88 proteins were exclusively down-regulated at predawn, compared to 8 exclusively up-regulated and 10 exclusively down-regulated at noon (Fig. (A) Score plot of OPLS modeling showing distribution of principal components. acknowledges financial support from the Macrosystems Program in the Emerging Frontiers Section of the NSF (Award 1065790), the Ecosystems Program in the Division of Environmental Biology (NSF Award 1754430), and the Water, Environmental, and Energy Solutions program supported by the Technology and Research Initiative Fund from the State of Arizona. This left two remaining sites for Sanguinaria and Trillium, and five sites for Asarum and Maianthemum. The wild-type CN and EV control lines were shown to retain relatively high rates of isoprene emission, whereas the transformed RNAi lines (IR) were shown to emit various rates of reduced isoprene emission, ranging to near-negligible levels. Interestingly, CRISPR gene editing may be a more efficient means for isoprene reduction than the RNAi method that we studied and may be exempt from regulation in the United States and several other countries—making it easier to employ (55). This variable also had the highest importance value; however, this importance value (0.67) was lower than those calculated for the other response variables. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Two of the most repressed proteins (negative log2-fold IR/IE change) were associated with isoprene synthase (Potri.007G118400.1 and Potri.017G041700.1), confirming the effective nature of the RNAi treatments in causing suppression of this enzyme. Many forest herb species are slow-growing and their harvest from wild populations is usually unsustainable (Charron and Gagnon 1991; Nantel et al. In several plots at the HAM and CAT sites, only a few small plants remained in the spring of year 3 while at the BED site, the lowest elevation site with rich bottomland soil, all four species were flourishing. Sanguinaria was planted as clumps with an initial size of one to four leaves (1.40 ± 0.74). About. While it is difficult to generalize about the role of isoprene emissions as a necessary stress-tolerance trait and its cost to biomass production in the face of future global change, most analyses indicate that isoprene emissions from global forests are indeed likely to increase in the future (28). 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