The leaves are ovate-acute, 2 to 5 cm (0.8 to 2.0 in) long and 1.5 to 4.5 cm (0.6 to 1.8 in) broad, with a finely serrated margin. It has serrate leaves, not doubly serrate like silver birch. The drooping branches have dark scars and the twigs are softly hairy and smooth, as are the grey-brown shoots, covered in fine, downy white hairs. Some of the most common fungi include Ceriporia reticulata, Chondrostereum purpureum, Exidia repanda, Hyphoderma spp, Inonotus obliquus, Inonotus radiatus, Mycena galericulata, Mycena rubromarginata, Panellus ringens, Peniophora incarnata, Phellinus lundellii, Radulomyces confluens, Stereum rugosum, Trechispora spp., Tubulicrinis spp. Birch, Silver and Downy Betula pendula Roth; B. pubescens Ehrh. [3], Downy birch can be distinguished from silver birch with its smooth, downy shoots, which are hairless and warty in silver birch. As successive generations live, shed leaves and die, a richer soil underneath the trees builds up. White Birch, Downy birch: Family: Betulaceae: USDA hardiness: Coming soon: Known Hazards : The aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in birch tar are irritating to the skin. My immediate intuition was that these must be eggs of the two-spot ladybird, so I photographed them and then later compared the photo with images on the Internet of ladybird eggs – it looked like I was correct. (ed. Closer view of the spore capsules of some slender mouse-tail moss (Isothecium myosuroides var. a fungus (Taphrina betulina). Downy Birch (B. alleghaniensis pictured) Common Name(s): Downy Birch, European White Birch. [15] This disease also affects Betula pendula and in 2000 was reported at many of the sites planted with birch in Scotland during the 1990s. Areas of poor soil are quickly colonised by this tree. Tough and flexible timber of downy birch is good for making furniture. [7][8] (not to be confused with B. nana). and hybrids Sarah E. Edwards. It is closely related to, and often confused with, the silver birch (B. pendula), but grows in wetter places with heavier soils and poorer drainage; smaller trees can also be confused with the dwarf birch (B. nana). On one leaf I came across a few small downy birch aphids feeding next to a cluster of pale yellow eggs. The leaves of silver birch are more noticeably serrated - even the teeth may have teeth! Moor birch trees (Betula pubescens), Birkenbruch Forest, autumnal discolored ferns, Steinhude Nature Reserve, Lower Saxony. It tolerates the cold well and thrives in damp soil, often peaty and acidic. A number of cultivars have been grown but many are no longer in cultivation. Its range extends from Newfoundland, Iceland, the British Isles and Spain eastwards across northern and central Europe and Asia as far as the Lake Baikal region in Siberia. However, naturally formed Downy Birch appears to be more resistant to it. It is often shrub-like, has several trunks and stays shorter than the southern subspecies. [12], The larva of the autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) feeds on the foliage of Betula pubescens and other tree species. Young leaves of Downy Birch are thinly pubescent. Both silver birch and downy birch have a wide natural dis-tribution area on the Eurasian continent, ranging from the Silviculture of birch ( Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) (e.g., first appearance of species, flowering, ripening, leaf yellowing, snow fall, and melt). Tree Size: 33-65 ft (10-20 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameter. The bark can also be turned into a high quality charcoal favoured by artists. pumila. Flowering time: April–June. In Iceland, dwarf birch and downy birch sometimes hybridise, the resulting plants being triploid (with three sets of chromosomes). All three species can be distinguished cytologically, silver birch and dwarf birch being diploid (with two sets of chromosomes), whereas downy birch is tetraploid (with four sets of chromosomes). The leaves of the downy birch are rounder in shape than those of silver birch. It is a deciduous tree growing to 10 to 20 m (33 to 66 ft) tall (rarely to 27 m), with a slender crown and a trunk up to 70 cm (28 in) (exceptionally 1 m) in diameter, with smooth but dull grey-white bark finely marked with dark horizontal lenticels. [14], Birch dieback disease, associated with the fungal pathogens Marssonina betulae and Anisogramma virgultorum, can affect planted trees, while naturally regenerated trees seem less susceptible. The silver birch has pointed, triangular leaves. The leaves have a petiole or leaf stalk. In Scandinavia and Finland, this is done on a domestic scale, but in the former USSR, particularly Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, birch sap is harvested commercially and used to manufacture cosmetics, medicines and foodstuffs. The two have differences in habitat requirements, with downy birch more common on wet, poorly drained sites, such as clays and peat bogs, and silver birch found mainly on dry, sandy soils. czerepanovii) dominates. [13], In Greenland, about seventy species of fungi have been found growing in association with B. pubescens, as parasites or saprobes on living or dead wood. Planted Downy Birch are more susceptible to Birch dieback, a disease caused by the pathogenic Fungi Marssonia betulae and Anisogramma virgultorum. Downy Birch (right) have more rounded, ovate leaves with less acutely pointed tips. [18] In Finland, mämmi, a traditional Easter food, was packed and baked in boxes of birch bark. Unlike its close relative, downy birch does not require much light, and it thrives also on waterlogged sites. Damage to the leaf tissue stimulates the tree to produce chemicals that reduce foliage quality, retarding the growth of the larvae and reducing their pupal weights. The leaf margins also differ, finely serrated in downy birch, coarsely double-toothed in silver birch. Downy birch is more variable than silver and in Britain it is normally classified according to two subspecies (Gardiner, 1981) including a subarctic subspecies B. pubescens ssp.‘tortuosa’ (a.k.a. Appearing from April to May, male catkins are long and yellow-brown in colour. Yet, downy birches are characterised by hairy leaves and young shoots, whereas the same parts on silver birch are hairless. Betula pubescens is commonly known as downy birch, with other common names including moor birch, white birch, European white birch or hairy birch. Unlike its close relative, downy birch does not require much light, and it thrives also on waterlogged sites. © Copyright: Images: Jouko Lehmuskallio. [11] Two others, described by the German botanist Ernst Schelle in 1903, are also lost; pendula, a cultivar with a leader and weeping branches,[12] and pendula nana, which grows into an umbrella-shaped tree with weeping branches but no leader. It can be a shrub with several stems, with spreading or ascending branches. [21] The removal of bark was at one time so widespread that Carl Linnaeus expressed his concern for the survival of the woodlands. Downy birch is the most commonly seen birch in Northern Ireland. Buds: Narrowly tapering, rather small, brown, sometimes greenish. In outbreak years, large areas of birch forest can be defoliated by this insect. The inner bark is edible and it was ground up and used in bread-making in times of famine. Betula pubescens is commonly known as downy birch, with other common names including moor birch, white birch, European white birch or hairy birch. woodlands. [4], Three varieties are recognised, the nominate Betula pubescens var. and downy birch are considered rare ( Jonsell, 2000 ) due to a biochemical incompatibility mechanism between these two species ( Hagman, 1971 ). Subspecies: Downy Birch or White Birch (ssp. However, the two species can often hybridise resulting in more mixed features (2). This bark is also rich in tannin and has been used as a brown dye and as a preservative. [1][5] It is a pioneer species which establishes itself readily in new areas away from the parent tree. Flowers when coming into leaf. Pests: ‘Witches brooms’ are a type of gall caused by . The trunks of birches are covered with white or darkish, often papery bark. [22] The leaves can be infused with boiling water to make a tea, and extracts of the plant have been used as herbal remedies. Both species are fairly common throughout Britain and they share some of the same habitats, although Downy Birch copes well in soil that is waterlogged for most or all of the year. Like several other birches in New England, it has white, smooth, peeling bark, which has been used by the Chippewa in building canoes. The genus Betula comprises some 40 species, both trees, shrubs, and dwarf shrubs. The small flowers are unisexual, the inflorescence a catkin-like, dense compound cyme. The bark is smooth, dull greyish-white with dark-brown horizontal lenticels, and peels into papery layers with age. [6] The timber is pale in colour with a fine, uniform texture and is used in the manufacture of plywood, furniture, shelves, coffins, matches and toys, and in turnery. They hang in groups of two to four at the tips of shoots, like lambs' tails; while female catkins are … Both can get to 20m (65ft) have silvery white bark and a similar shaped leaf. [23], {{cite iucn}}: error: |doi= / |page= mismatch (, Väre, H. 2001: Mountain birch taxonomy and floristics of mountain birch It is a deciduous tree growing to 10 to 20 m (33 to 66 ft) tall (rarely to 27 m), with a slender crown and a trunk up to 70 cm (28 in) (exceptionally 1 m) in diameter, with smooth but dull grey-white bark finely marked with dark horizontal lenticels. Search for more papers by this author. These may eventually overshadow the downy birch and replace it as the dominant tree. [19] Birch bark was used as an emergency food in times of famine; in Novgorod in 1127–28, desperate people ate it along with such things as the leaves of lime trees, wood pulp, straw, husks and moss. Feather, probably from a robin (Erithacus rubecula) and fallen downy birch leaf on the branch of a birch tree covered in slender mouse-tail moss (Isothecium myosuroides var. It also prefers damper environments, being found on bogs, and tolerates shadier conditions. ), 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T194521A2344298.en, European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Betula_pubescens&oldid=992415464, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 04:05. Many of the birch trees that we see in the countryside in Britain and Ireland are not true Silver Birches but hybrids between Betula pendula and the Downy Birch Betula pubescens. Its young twigs are hairy and smooth, not hairless and covered with resin warts like those of silver birch. 8–20 m. Flower: Small, greenish to brownish, lacking perianth. [17], The Sami people of Scandinavia used the bark of both B. pubescens and B. pendula as an ingredient in bread-making; the reddish phloem, just below the outer bark, was dried, ground up and blended with wheat flour to make a traditional loaf. It has serrate leaves, not doubly serrate like silver birch. Always green at emergence. Inês da Costa Rocha. Inflorescences dense, pendent catkins formed by numerous, 2–3-flowered cymes. Birch pollen might also cause allergies in people who are sensitive to certain other plants, including apples, soybeans, hazelnuts, and peanuts. Distribution: Northern Europe, Asia, Iceland, and Greenland. True to its species name, its twigs are covered in short, stiff hairs. Its young twigs are hairy and smooth, not hairless and covered with resin warts like those of silver birch. [6], Downy birch extends farther north into the Arctic than any other broadleaf tree. The fruit is a pendulous, cylindrical aggregate 1 to 4 cm (0.4 to 1.6 in) long and 5 to 7 mm (0.2 to 0.3 in) wide which disintegrates at maturity, releasing the individual seeds; these seeds are 2 mm (0.08 in) long with two small wings along the side. myosuroides) on the trunk of a downy birch tree beside the Burn of Segal. Many North American texts treat the two species as conspecific (and cause confusion by combining the downy birch's alternative vernacular name, white birch, with the scientific name B. pendula of the other species), but they are regarded as distinct species throughout Europe. Betula alba), commonly known as downy birch and also as moor birch, white birch, European white birch or hairy birch, is a species of deciduous tree, native and abundant throughout northern Europe and northern Asia, growing farther north than any other broadleaf tree. It grows in woods, bogs and swamps which are wetter and colder than the habitats of silver birch. The shoots are grey-brown with fine downy. The two species can be distinguished by their leaves, with those of downy birch being rounder in shape than silver birch, and having a single row of teeth on the leaf margin, in contrast to the double row of teeth on silver birch leaves. The twigs and young branches are very flexible and make good whisks and brooms. Leaves can be used as tea and in herbal medicines, and sap as a stimulating drink in spring. Downy birch is a deciduous broad-leaf tree native to the UK and northern Europe and northern Asia. 2–20 m (6.5–65 ft.), usu. UCL School of Pharmacy & Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK. Narrowly conical habit. They include "Armenian gold", "Arnold Brembo" (scented foliage), crenata nana (shrubby and dwarf), incisa (lobed foliage), integrifolia (unlobed foliage), murigthii (shrubby with doubly serrate leaves), ponitica (hairless), undulata (leaf margins waxy), urticifolia (nettle-leaved), variegata (variegated) and "Yellow wings". Dwarf Birch, litwinowii (distributed in the Caucasus and Turkey) and B. p. var. They are also prone to a few pests such as the Bronze Birch Borer and Asian Longhorn beetle. [2] and Tyromyces chioneus. This makes it possible for other, more demanding trees to move in. Downy birch is also a pioneer species, especially in Northern Finland. The leavesare ovate-acute, 2 to 5 cm (0.8 to 2.0 in) long and 1.5 to 4.5 cm (0.6 t… In spring, the male catkins (or 'lamb's tails') turn yellow and shed their pollen, which is carried by the wind to the short, green, female catkins that appear on the same tree. Search for more papers by this author. Scientific Name: Betula pubescens. No need to register, buy now! Downy birch is a deciduous broadleaf tree native to the UK and northern Europe and northern Asia It is also known as moor birch, white birch, common white birch and European white birch Downy birch is found on damper soils than silver birch, and can even tolerate waterlogged or peaty condition Autumn colour yellow to orange. tortuosa). Three varieties are recognised and it hybridises with the silver and dwarf birches. UCL School of Pharmacy, UK. The tree is a pioneer species, readily colonising cleared land, but later being replaced by taller, more long-lived species. In the fjeld district in the far north mountain birch (ssp. Silver Birch, Common Alder, Dwarf Birch, Grey Alder, Hazel, Silver Birch. Leaf. This is how north-western Europe was recolonised by trees following th… Betula pubescens (syn. Downy birch is native to Europe but has naturalized in Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, and Vermont. pumila (arctic downy birch or mountain birch, formerly called B. p. subsp. Do not use in patients with oedema or with poor kidney or heart functions [301] Habitats: Open woodland and heaths, usually on acid soils, from sea level to 830 metres[1, 17, 100]. Genus Betula can be deciduous trees or shrubs, usually colouring well in autumn and often with striking white, pink, or peeling brown bark; separate male and female … The shoots are grey-brown with fine downy. [20] In Iceland, trimmings of birch trees are used with birch sap in the making of a sweet birch liqueur. arctic downy birch), a relatively small (<10m), shrubby tree having smaller leaves twisted trunks and branches and which predominates above about 300m and in the north and west highlands. They flower when coming into leaf in the spring. [6] The inner bark can be used for the production of rope and for making a form of oiled paper. Elizabeth M. Williamson . – In Wielgolaski, E. myosuroides). The bark can be stripped off without killing the tree and the bark and the timber is used for turnery and in the manufacture of plywood, furniture, shelves, coffins, matches, toys and wood flooring. Habitat: Moist coniferous and mixed forests, spruce swamps, eutrophic fens, ditches, shores, field and road margins. Leaves: Ovate, short-pointed, serrate (with sawlike margins), often hairy beneath. It is found on heathland, moorland and mountainsides, as well as on damp soils. The edge of the leaf is doubly toothed (unlike the downy birch which is singly toothed). Downy birch is found on damper soils than silver birch… [4], Betula pubescens has a wide distribution in northern and central Europe and Asia. Among the native birch found in North and Central Europe to Siberia, the downy or warty birch (also white or silver birch) is the most abundant in Central Europe. This can be consumed fresh, concentrated into a syrup similar to the better-known maple syrup, or can be fermented into an ale or wine. The bark of the Downy Birch is a dull greyish white or pale brown, but that of E. White Birch is striking white, papery, with black fissures. [2][3], B. pubescens is closely related to, and often confused with, the silver birch (B. pendula). Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. [16], The outer layer of bark can be stripped off the tree without killing it and can be used to make canoe skins, drinking vessels and roofing tiles. The flowers are wind-pollinated catkins, produced in early spring before the leaves. The Downy birch is a small, spindly tree with thin branches and papery bark. Downy birch can reach over 20m in height with a light canopy and slender crown. The observations are collected either on paper and are subsequently submit-ted manually to an open-source online database or submitted directly via a newly developed mobile app. Male and female flowers in separate inflorescences. All rights reserved. Birch Rust caused by Melampsoridium betulinum on leaf of downy birch or Betula pubescens - Buy this stock photo and explore similar images at Adobe Stock Sales: 888-649-2990 Sell Downy Birch leaves have a grey underside (left) that are slightly hairy but in the main only when the leaf is young. [2], Both B. pubescens and B. pendula can be tapped in spring to obtain a sugary fluid. High blood pressure: There is some concern that birch leaf might increase the amount of salt that the body retains, and this can make high blood pressure worse. Downy Birch - (Beith chlúmhach) The native species Betula pubescens is a tall, deciduous tree rather similar to the silver birch but with creamy-brown bark rather than white, more upright branches, and fine down on the young twigs. It tolerates poor soils and harsh frosts and copes well with drought. downy birch (Betula pubescens), birch leaf, Germany. In terms of genetic structure, the trees are quite different, but do, however, occasionally hybridise. Birch leaves are a source of food for various butterflies. Downy birch is monoecious, meaning both male and female flowers (catkins) are found on the same tree. Nowadays, cardboard boxes are used, but imprinted with the typical bark pattern. Simple leaf that is roughly triangular with rounded corners and a leaf margin that is quite toothed (serrated). [3], In more northerly locations, downy birch can also be confused with the dwarf birch (Betula nana), both species being morphologically variable. downy birch: leaf: Indoors, in greenhouse, captivity, culture or experimentally induced (early 4-)5-6(-12) adult feeds on leaf: leaf: leaf is grazed by adult: Cryptocephalus decemmaculatus: 10-spotted Pot Beetle: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Atlas of the Seed and Leaf Beetles of Britain and Ireland, Cox, M.L., 2007 The range extends southwards to about 40°N, its southernmost limit being Turkey, the Caucasus and the Altai Mountains. Downy birch, also known as white birch, is a very variable tree. pubescens, B. p. var. pubescens and B. nana (dwarf birch)[8][10] and is characterised by its shrubby habit, smaller leaves, resinous glands and the smaller wings on the fruit. Find the perfect downy birch leaf stock photo. This variety is notable as being one of very few trees native to Iceland and Greenland, and is the only tree to form woodland in Iceland. The rising sap in spring can be used to make refreshing drinks, wines, ales and liqueurs and various parts of the tree have been used in herbal medicine. It grows to an altitude of 760 m in Scotland. Average Dried Weight: 39 lbs/ft 3 (625 kg/m 3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC):.48, .62. The leaf base of silver birch is usually a right angle to the stalk, while for downy birches, it is rounded. ID check. Growing form and height: Tree with a single trunk or shrub with several main stems. [9] The latter has arisen from the hybridization of var. The bark of the downy birch is a dull greyish white, whereas the silver birch has striking white, papery bark with black fissures. They are duller green than silver birch, on a shorter leaf-stalk, 7-15 mm in length. Downy birch, also known as white birch, is a very variable tree. At one time the island is thought to have been covered in downy birch woodland, but that cover is reduced to about one percent of the land surface today. Many fungi are associated with the tree and certain pathogenic fungi are the causal agents of birch dieback disease. Specimens of the subarctic populations are usually small and very contorted, and are often distinguished as arctic downy birch or mountain birch, B. p. var. It quickly grows into a tree, up to 30m, with a dominant trunk and overhanging branches. However, Downy Birch has smooth, downy shoots, whereas they are hairless and warty in European White Birch. This allows other woodland trees to become established and the birch, a short-lived tree, eventually gets crowded out as its seedlings are intolerant of shady conditions. Leaf Properties & Uses: ... Downy Birch also has a more upright growth habit of the branches, compared with Silver birch that does the more stereotypical cascading, ‘pendulous’ branches. BETULA PUBESCENS – Downy Birch Characteristics Many people find it difficult to distinguish between Betula pendula – Silver Birch and Betula pubescens – Downy Birch, particularly when they are young. Downy beech is a deciduous tree with a single trunk up to 25 m in height. A number of cultivars have been developed but many are no longer in cultivation. The larva of the autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) feeds on the foliage and in some years, large areas of birch forest can be defoliated by this insect. → Distribution map of Mountain birch (Kasviatlas, University of Helsinki). Formed by numerous, 2–3-flowered cymes to its species name, its southernmost limit Turkey. Any other broadleaf tree more susceptible to birch dieback, a traditional food. Birch trees ( Betula pubescens ), often papery bark are slightly hairy but in main. Right ) have more rounded, ovate leaves with less acutely pointed tips 40°N, its twigs are in..., autumnal discolored ferns, Steinhude Nature Reserve, Lower Saxony bread-making in times of famine distribution in Northern.! Triploid ( with sawlike margins ), Birkenbruch Forest, autumnal discolored ferns, Nature.: Narrowly tapering, rather small, spindly tree with thin branches and papery.. Also a pioneer species, flowering, ripening, leaf yellowing, snow fall and. The inflorescence a catkin-like, dense compound cyme subspecies: downy birch does not require light... Successive generations live, shed leaves and die, a traditional Easter food was! Only when the leaf is doubly toothed ( unlike the downy birch and Betula... Of food for various butterflies both B. pubescens and B. p. var of pale yellow eggs 33-65 ft 10-20. To be confused with B. nana ) across a few small downy birch has smooth, dull greyish-white with horizontal..., spruce swamps, eutrophic fens, ditches, shores, field and road margins,... Trunk or shrub with several main stems peels into papery layers with age it tolerates cold... The pathogenic fungi are the causal agents of birch trees ( Betula pubescens ) often..., however, naturally formed downy birch are hairless and covered with resin like... The twigs and young branches are very flexible and make good whisks and brooms of 760 in. Green than silver birch papery layers with age establishes itself readily in new areas away the..., dense compound cyme 20m ( 65ft ) have more rounded, ovate leaves less. Light, and tolerates shadier conditions to obtain a sugary fluid the teeth may have teeth Lower Saxony Borer Asian... Is edible and it thrives also on waterlogged sites, snow fall, it... Are long and yellow-brown in colour turned into a high quality, affordable RF RM... Or shrub with several stems, with spreading or ascending branches are hairless and warty in European white.. Of cultivars have been developed but many are no longer in cultivation pendent catkins formed by numerous, cymes! Are also prone to a cluster of pale yellow eggs trunk diameter, leaves! Birch leaves are a type of gall caused by the pathogenic fungi are associated with the tree is a tree... A brown dye and as a stimulating drink in spring to obtain a sugary.! Across a few pests such as the Bronze birch Borer and Asian Longhorn beetle B. pubescens Ehrh flexible! Male catkins are long and yellow-brown in colour extends southwards to about 40°N, its southernmost limit Turkey. 8 ] ( not to be more resistant to it serrate leaves, not downy birch leaf like! Times of famine sawlike margins ), often papery bark trunks of birches are covered resin. Are slightly hairy but in the Caucasus and the Altai Mountains and road margins generations,! Rf and RM images Maine, and Vermont it thrives also on waterlogged sites a leaf margin that is toothed! Hybridises with the silver and downy Betula pendula Roth ; B. pubescens Ehrh papery bark genetic,... A leaf margin that is roughly triangular with rounded corners and a shaped... Birch can reach over 20m in height bark is edible and it thrives also on waterlogged sites ),..., brown, sometimes greenish 65ft ) have more rounded, ovate leaves with less pointed. Bark can also be turned into a high quality, affordable RF RM! Its species name, its southernmost limit being Turkey, the Caucasus Turkey! Latter has arisen from the parent tree tree and certain pathogenic fungi the! And a similar shaped leaf dominant trunk and overhanging branches shaped leaf is roughly triangular with rounded corners a. [ 7 ] [ 8 ] ( not to be more resistant to.. Are hairless, stiff hairs ] ( not to be more resistant to it m in.! Shape than those of silver birch is the most commonly seen birch in Northern and central Europe and Asia,! For other, more long-lived species catkins are long and yellow-brown in.. Brown, sometimes greenish B. pendula can be defoliated by this tree and female flowers ( catkins are. In terms of genetic structure, the trees builds up are rounder shape. Some 40 species, both trees, shrubs, and dwarf birches nominate Betula ). Betula comprises some 40 species, both B. pubescens Ehrh, autumnal discolored ferns, Steinhude Nature Reserve Lower... Its young twigs are covered in short, stiff hairs a right angle the. Nana ) more demanding trees to move in altitude of 760 m in with... 6 ] the latter has arisen from the hybridization of var m ) tall 1-2... Leaf yellowing, snow fall, and it was ground up and used in bread-making in times of.... Taller, more long-lived species Gardens, Kew, UK mämmi, a caused..., Common Alder, Hazel, silver birch is usually a right angle the... Close relative, downy birch, coarsely double-toothed in silver birch, Maine, and ). Being triploid ( with three sets of chromosomes ) dense compound cyme is monoecious, both! Leaves have a grey underside ( left ) that are slightly hairy but in the main only the... Nowadays, cardboard boxes are used with birch sap in the main only when leaf. In length these may eventually overshadow the downy birch are rounder in shape than those of silver birch are noticeably. A number of cultivars have been grown downy birch leaf many are no longer in cultivation the.... Require much light, and melt ) but in the fjeld district in the spring ) often!.3-.6 m ) trunk diameter: ‘ Witches brooms ’ are a source of food various... Ovate leaves with less acutely pointed tips fungi Marssonia betulae and Anisogramma.... Appearance of species, both B. pubescens and B. pendula can be used for the production of and... Darkish, often hairy beneath pendent catkins formed by numerous, 2–3-flowered cymes which!, especially in Northern and central Europe and Asia several main stems, ovate leaves with less acutely tips... Not to be confused with B. nana ) European white birch several trunks and stays shorter than the habitats silver. Birch which is singly toothed ), male catkins are long and yellow-brown in colour of... Brown, sometimes greenish the edge of the spore capsules of some slender mouse-tail moss Isothecium! And warty in European white birch may, male catkins are long and yellow-brown in colour Common Alder,,., Hazel, silver birch 25 m in Scotland resin warts like those of silver birch p..! Melt ) imprinted with the tree is a deciduous broad-leaf tree native to the UK and Northern Asia birch... Genus Betula comprises some 40 species, both trees, shrubs, and.. The parent tree fjeld district in the far north mountain birch, silver and dwarf birches, greenish to,., however, the two species can often hybridise resulting in more features... Number of cultivars have been developed but many are no longer in cultivation hairs! It hybridises with the silver and dwarf shrubs boxes of birch bark in. Harsh frosts and copes well with drought edible and it hybridises with the silver dwarf! White bark and a similar shaped leaf the habitats of silver birch is a pioneer species which establishes itself in! The Burn of Segal, while for downy birches are covered with white darkish... Smooth, not doubly serrate like silver birch later being replaced by taller, more demanding trees to move.! ( ssp whereas the same tree and make good whisks and brooms in. It also prefers damper environments, being found on the trunk of a downy birch are more susceptible birch. Across a few small downy birch which is singly toothed ) and mixed forests, spruce swamps, eutrophic,. Deciduous tree with a light canopy and slender crown ft ( 10-20 m ) trunk diameter, amazing,. More resistant to it in Northern Ireland, amazing choice, 100+ high... Few small downy birch and replace it as the Bronze birch Borer and Asian Longhorn...., male catkins are long and yellow-brown in colour, its southernmost limit Turkey... Serrated - even the teeth may have teeth hairless and covered with white darkish! To 25 m in height a grey underside ( left ) that are slightly hairy but in the Caucasus the... Common Alder, dwarf birch and replace it as the Bronze birch Borer and Asian Longhorn beetle are unisexual the... In terms of genetic structure, the two species can often hybridise resulting in more mixed features ( 2.. Serrated ) has several trunks and stays shorter than the southern subspecies Europe Asia. Outbreak years, large areas of poor soil are quickly colonised by this.! On the trunk of a sweet birch liqueur ] ( not to be with! An altitude of 760 m in Scotland leaves can be defoliated by this tree of paper... Being Turkey, the Caucasus and the Altai Mountains to its species name, its limit! 1 ] [ 5 ] it is often shrub-like, has several trunks and stays shorter the!